This module will build on the basic concepts learnt in core epidemiology and biostatistics modules, with specific applications to study designs used in patient-care settings. The main objective of the course is to provide skills and tools that can be applied to a variety of research designs. Individual sessions will focus on evaluating validity and bias in clinical observational studies, selecting and evaluating instruments to measure patient outcomes, and methods used for risk adjustment. Prognostic studies and diagnostic testing will also be discussed. Students will critique journal articles and use practical exercises to explore threats to validity and the use of conceptual and analytic models in clinical studies.