After 1815, the Industrial Revolution and mass politics changed warfare. The new pattern of Modern War that emerged led to a further and more dramatic change: war between great industrial powers for unlimited ends, using unlimited means. Why did this happen and how did it affect the course of history? This course will pursue this question, analyzing changes in the nature and pattern of warfare to identify and explore the characteristics of Total War. It will concentrate on the Second World War. This course is designed for students throughout NUS with an interest in history.