The People’s Republic of China was established in 1949 by the Chinese Communist Party, first led by Mao Zedong and later by Deng Xiaoping and his successors. The development path from its founding to the Tiananmen incident of 1989 was turbulent and far from linear. Indeed, the new China has been premised upon revolutionary remaking and a total break from the past. Nonetheless, there are still historical continuities when compared with the previous imperial and republican eras. This module aims to provide a deeper understanding of contemporary China by looking at its politics, society, economy and culture in broad historical perspective and within a thematic framework. It also explores China’s distancing and connecting with the rest of the world.