This module aims to promote the better understanding about Japan's foreign policy and international relations. The module consists of three analytical focuses: defence and security policies, foreign economic policy and regional and multilateral institutions. The first section highlights major features of Japan's defence and security policies including the recent changes in Japan's security environment in the Asia Pacific region and their impact on Japan's defence policy approaches. The second section focuses on the characteristics of Japan's policies of international trade and foreign aid. This section also discusses the domestic system in the context of Japan's foreign economic policy and highlights how the Western critics regarded the issue as problematic. The third section examines Japan's approaches to regional institutions such as APEC, ARF, ASEAN+3, and the G-8 Summit Meeting and United Nations, with focuses on its approaches and diplomatic activities in each case. Although this module highlights more empirical cases of Japanese foreign policy, it also introduces some theoretical debates as well.