This course examines the jus in bello – the law which regulates the conduct of hostilities once the decision to resort to force has been taken. This course will deal with fundamental concepts of the jus in bello, focusing on customary international law. Basic legal concepts that will be discussed include State and individual responsibility, the distinction between combatants and civilians, and the principle of proportionality. The course will also examine topics such as weaponry, international and noninternational conflicts, and the enforcement of the law in situations of conflict. Note: This course does not deal with the jus ad bellum, or the rules relating to the general prohibition on the use of force in international law.