This module serves to highlight issues surrounding fungal infections that are becoming increasingly relevant to human health. This module begins with an introduction to the basic biology of fungal cells that make them a unique class of microbial pathogens. We also examine key molecular events in host-cell interactions and the different strategies by which fungi can evade immune-surveillance and establish pathogenicity. The significance of fungal pathogens in nosocomial infections and among the aged and immunocompromised will be discussed. There will also be a survey of the various aspects of diagnostic and therapeutic advances in the field to conclude the module.