The main theme of this module is processes of change in Malay cultures and societies and how attempts at creating certainties are made. Part 1 introduces students to approaches in studying Malay culture and society. Malay culture and society does not exist in vacuum. In Part 2, we look at how in encountering "others" Malay culture and society has historically gone through and is going through massive changes. Part 3 highlights aspects of changes in contemporary Malay society including ethnicity and Malay identity, new Malay rich, Malay woman and femininity as well as national development and the indigenous people.