This module examines the emergence of a new social group in Malay history, namely the Malay middle class. In the past, the dominant Malay elite had always been associated with the hierarchy of traditional Malay society. With the introduction of Malay capitalism in the 70s under the New Economic Plan (NEP), there has been the emergence of the Malay middle class. This module looks at the background of its emergence, identifies its socio-historical characteristics, and evaluates its influence on society and nation in general. Insights on the Malay middle class can contribute to an understanding of Southeast Asian affairs.