This course covers policy issues of modern ageing societies, with special emphases on families and comparisons between Asian and Western countries. To tackle the complex issues, we discuss both relevant theories and empirical evidence from various disciplines. The first part investigates demographic causes of population ageing–decreased fertility and extended longevity. The second part reviews public old-age support programs and discuss their challenges. We also describe policy options to mitigate the consequences of population ageing, and assess the effectiveness of the policies. The third part examines why families provide elder support, and how public and private old-age provisions are interrelated.