Critical international relations theory argues that the social structures of the international system are the product of human interaction in specific historical circumstances. It also argues that these structures contribute to oppressing much of the world's population. How did these oppressive structures emerge, and why do they persist? Who gains from them and how do they maintain their privileged position? This module will explore such questions by examining major traditions in critical theory, including Marxism, constructivism, post-modernism, and critical feminist theory and applying these theories to issues in international relations.