This module explores how monuments, memorials and other forms of public commemoration represent the past and influence culture and politics in the present. It takes a comparative approach, using case studies from different societies. The module highlights the complexity and contested nature of commemoration and memorialization. Although monuments and memorials may be intended to tell the “true” version of historical events, the end result often hides controversies that may have been part of the process of designing these structures. Similarly, the meanings attached to monuments and memorials can change dramatically over time, as societies change and these structures are reinterpreted.